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Author Levionnois, Sébastien ; Ziegler, Camille ; Heuret, Patrick ; Jansen, Steven ; Stahl, Clément ; Calvet, Emma ; Goret, Jean-Yves ; Bonal, Damien ; Coste, Sabrina doi  openurl
  Title Is vulnerability segmentation at the leaf‑stem transition a drought resistance mechanism? A theoretical test with a trait‑based model for Neotropical canopy tree species Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Annals of Forest Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 78 Issue 4 Pages 78-87  
  Keywords Neotropics, bark, canopy, capacitance, drought, drought tolerance, embolism, leaves, models, transpiration, trees, tropical rain forests, xylem  
  Abstract Leaf-stem vulnerability segmentation predicts lower xylem embolism resistance in leaves than stem. However, although it has been intensively investigated these past decades, the extent to which vulnerability segmentation promotes drought resistance is not well understood. Based on a trait-based model, this study theoretically supports that vulnerability segmentation enhances shoot desiccation time across 18 Neotropical tree species. CONTEXT: Leaf-stem vulnerability segmentation predicts lower xylem embolism resistance in leaves than stems thereby preserving expensive organs such as branches or the trunk. Although vulnerability segmentation has been intensively investigated these past decades to test its consistency across species, the extent to which vulnerability segmentation promotes drought resistance is not well understood. AIMS: We investigated the theoretical impact of the degree of vulnerability segmentation on shoot desiccation time estimated with a simple trait-based model. METHODS: We combined data from 18 tropical rainforest canopy tree species on embolism resistance of stem xylem (flow-centrifugation technique) and leaves (optical visualisation method). Measured water loss under minimum leaf and bark conductance, leaf and stem capacitance, and leaf-to-bark area ratio allowed us to calculate a theoretical shoot desiccation time (tcᵣᵢₜ). RESULTS: Large degrees of vulnerability segmentation strongly enhanced the theoretical shoot desiccation time, suggesting vulnerability segmentation to be an efficient drought resistance mechanism for half of the studied species. The difference between leaf and bark area, rather than the minimum leaf and bark conductance, determined the drastic reduction of total transpiration by segmentation during severe drought. CONCLUSION: Our study strongly suggests that vulnerability segmentation is an important drought resistance mechanism that should be better taken into account when investigating plant drought resistance and modelling vegetation. We discuss future directions for improving model assumptions with empirical measures, such as changes in total shoot transpiration after leaf xylem embolism.  
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  Publisher Springer Link Place of Publication Editor  
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  Call Number EcoFoG @ webmaster @ Serial 1034  
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Author Levionnois, Sébastien ; Salmon, Camille ; Alméras, Tancrède ; Clair, Bruno ; Ziegler, Camille ; Coste, Sabrina ; Stahl, Clement ; Gonzalez-Melo, Andrés ; Heinz, Christine ; Heuret, Patrick doi  openurl
  Title Anatomies, vascular architectures, and mechanics underlying the leaf size-stem size spectrum in 42 Neotropical tree species Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Journal of Experimental Botany Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 72 Issue 22 Pages 7957–7969  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The leaf size-stem size spectrum is one of the main dimensions of plant ecological strategies. Yet the anatomical, mechanical, and hydraulic implications of small vs. large shoots are still poorly understood. We investigated 42 tropical rainforest tree species in French Guiana, with a wide range of leaf areas at the shoot level. We quantified the scaling of hydraulic and mechanical constraints with shoot size estimated as the water potential difference ΔΨ and the bending angle ΔΦ, respectively. We investigated how anatomical tissue area, flexural stiffness and xylem vascular architecture affect such scaling by deviating (or not) from theoretical isometry with shoot size variation. Vessel diameter and conductive path length were found to be allometrically related to shoot size, thereby explaining the independence between ΔΨ and shoot size. Leaf mass per area, stem length, and the modulus of elasticity were allometrically related with shoot size, explaining the independence between ΔΦ and shoot size. Our study also shows that the maintenance of both water supply and mechanical stability across the shoot size range are not in conflict.  
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  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Editor  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number EcoFoG @ webmaster @ Serial 1050  
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Author Levionnois, S.; Jansen, S.; Wandji, R.T.; Beauchêne, J.; Ziegler, C.; Coste, S.; Stahl, C.; Delzon, S.; Authier, L.; Heuret, P. doi  openurl
  Title Linking drought-induced xylem embolism resistance to wood anatomical traits in Neotropical trees Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication New Phytologist Abbreviated Journal New Phytol.  
  Volume 229 Issue 3 Pages 1453-1466  
  Keywords bordered pits; drought-induced embolism; pit membrane; transmission electron microscopy; tropical trees; vessel grouping; xylem anatomy  
  Abstract Drought-induced xylem embolism is considered to be one of the main factors driving mortality in woody plants worldwide. Although several structure–functional mechanisms have been tested to understand the anatomical determinants of embolism resistance, there is a need to study this topic by integrating anatomical data for many species. We combined optical, laser, and transmission electron microscopy to investigate vessel diameter, vessel grouping, and pit membrane ultrastructure for 26 tropical rainforest tree species across three major clades (magnoliids, rosiids, and asteriids). We then related these anatomical observations to previously published data on drought-induced embolism resistance, with phylogenetic analyses. Vessel diameter, vessel grouping, and pit membrane ultrastructure were all predictive of xylem embolism resistance, but with weak predictive power. While pit membrane thickness was a predictive trait when vestured pits were taken into account, the pit membrane diameter-to-thickness ratio suggests a strong importance of the deflection resistance of the pit membrane. However, phylogenetic analyses weakly support adaptive coevolution. Our results emphasize the functional significance of pit membranes for air-seeding in tropical rainforest trees, highlighting also the need to study their mechanical properties due to the link between embolism resistance and pit membrane diameter-to-thickness ratio. Finding support for adaptive coevolution also remains challenging. © 2020 The Authors New Phytologist © 2020 New Phytologist Foundation  
  Address UMR BIOGECO, INRAE, Université de Bordeaux, Pessac, 33615, France  
  Corporate Author (up) Thesis  
  Publisher Blackwell Publishing Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028646x (Issn) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number EcoFoG @ webmaster @ Serial 997  
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Author Levionnois, S.; Tysklind, N.; Nicolini, E.; Ferry, B.; Troispoux, V.; Le Moguedec, G.; Morel, H.; Stahl, C.; Coste, S.; Caron, H.; Heuret, P. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Soil variation response is mediated by growth trajectories rather than functional traits in a widespread pioneer Neotropical tree Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication bioRxiv, peer-reviewed by Peer Community in Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 351197 Issue v4 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Trait-environment relationships have been described at the community level across tree species. However, whether interspecific trait-environment relationships are consistent at the intraspecific level is yet unknown. Moreover, we do not know how consistent is the response between organ vs. whole-tree level.We examined phenotypic variability for 16 functional leaf (dimensions, nutrient, chlorophyll) and wood traits (density) across two soil types, Ferralitic Soil (FS) vs. White Sands (WS), on two sites for 70 adult trees of Cecropia obtusa Trécul (Urticaceae) in French Guiana. Cecropia is a widespread pioneer Neotropical genus that generally dominates early successional forest stages. To understand how soil types impact resource-use through the processes of growth and branching, we examined the architectural development with a retrospective analysis of growth trajectories. We expect soil types to affect both, functional traits in relation to resource acquisition strategy as already described at the interspecific level, and growth strategies due to resource limitations with reduced growth on poor soils.Functional traits were not involved in the soil response, as only two traits-leaf residual water content and K content-showed significant differences across soil types. Soil effects were stronger on growth trajectories, with WS trees having the slowest growth trajectories and less numerous branches across their lifespan.The analysis of growth trajectories based on architectural analysis improved our ability to characterise the response of trees with soil types. The intraspecific variability is higher for growth trajectories than functional traits for C. obtusa, revealing the complementarity of the architectural approach with the functional approach to gain insights on the way trees manage their resources over their lifetime. Soil-related responses of Cecropia functional traits are not the same as those at the interspecific level, suggesting that the effects of the acting ecological processes are different between the two levels. Apart from soil differences, much variation was found across sites, which calls for further investigation of the factors shaping growth trajectories in tropical forests.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number EcoFoG @ webmaster @ Serial 931  
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Author Verryckt, L.T.; Ellsworth, D.S.; Vicca, S.; Van Langenhove, L.; Peñuelas, J.; Ciais, P.; Posada, J.M.; Stahl, C.; Coste, S.; Courtois, E.A.; Obersteiner, M.; Chave, J.; Janssens, I.A. doi  openurl
  Title Can light-saturated photosynthesis in lowland tropical forests be estimated by one light level? Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Biotropica Abbreviated Journal Biotropica  
  Volume 52 Issue 6 Pages 1183-1193  
  Keywords canopy architecture; interspecific variation; light intensity; lowland environment; parameter estimation; photon flux density; photosynthesis; saturation; tropical forest; French Guiana  
  Abstract Leaf-level net photosynthesis (An) estimates and associated photosynthetic parameters are crucial for accurately parameterizing photosynthesis models. For tropical forests, such data are poorly available and collected at variable light conditions. To avoid over- or underestimation of modeled photosynthesis, it is critical to know at which photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) photosynthesis becomes light-saturated. We studied the dependence of An on PPFD in two tropical forests in French Guiana. We estimated the light saturation range, including the lowest PPFD level at which Asat (An at light saturation) is reached, as well as the PPFD range at which Asat remained unaltered. The light saturation range was derived from photosynthetic light-response curves, and within-canopy and interspecific differences were studied. We observed wide light saturation ranges of An. Light saturation ranges differed among canopy heights, but a PPFD level of 1,000 µmol m−2 s−1 was common across all heights, except for pioneer trees species that did not reach light saturation below 2,000 µmol m−2 s−1. A light intensity of 1,000 µmol m−2 s−1 sufficed for measuring Asat of climax species at our study sites, independent of the species or the canopy height. Because of the wide light saturation ranges, results from studies measuring Asat at higher PPFD levels (for upper canopy leaves up to 1,600 µmol m−2 s−1) are comparable with studies measuring at 1,000 µmol m−2 s−1. © 2020 The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation  
  Address UMR 5174, Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique, CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France  
  Corporate Author (up) Thesis  
  Publisher Blackwell Publishing Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 00063606 (Issn) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number EcoFoG @ webmaster @ Serial 948  
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