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Author Odonne, G.; Houel, E.; Bourdy, G.; Stien, D. url  doi
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  Title Treating leishmaniasis in Amazonia: A review of ethnomedicinal concepts and pharmaco-chemical analysis of traditional treatments to inspire modern phytotherapies Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Ethnopharmacology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Ethnopharmacology  
  Volume (down) 199 Issue Pages 211-230  
  Keywords Amazonia; Distribution indexes; Ethnomedecine; Interculturality; Leishmaniasis; Medicinal plants; Traditional medicine  
  Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are neglected tropical diseases that occur in all intertropical regions of the world. Amazonian populations have developed an abundant knowledge of the disease and its remedies. Therefore, we undertook to review traditional antileishmanial plants in Amazonia and have developed new tools to analyze this somewhat dispersed information. Material and methods A literature review of traditional remedies for cutaneous/mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon was conducted and the data obtained was used to calculate distribution indexes designed to highlight the most relevant uses in Amazonia. The cultural distribution index represents the distribution rate of a given taxon among different cultural groups and was calculated as the ratio of the number of groups using the taxon to the total number of groups cited. The geographical distribution index allowed us to quantify spatial distribution of a taxon's uses in Amazonia and was calculated geometrically by measuring the average distance between the points where uses have been reported and the barycenter of those points. The general distribution index was defined as an arithmetic combination of the previous two and provides information on both cultural and spatial criteria. Results 475 use reports, concerning 291 botanical species belonging to 83 families have been gathered depicted from 29 sources. Uses concern 34 cultural groups. While the use of some taxa appears to be Pan-Amazonian, some others are clearly restricted to small geographical regions. Particular attention has been paid to the recipes and beliefs surrounding treatments. Topical application of the remedies dominated the other means of administration and this deserves particular attention as the main treatments against Neotropical leishmaniasis are painful systemic injections. The data set was analyzed using the previously defined distribution indexes and the most relevant taxa were further discussed from a phytochemical and pharmacological point of view. Conclusions The Amazonian biodiversity and cultural heritage host a fantastic amount of data whose systematic investigation should allow a better large-scale understanding of the dynamics of traditional therapies and the consequent discovery of therapeutic solutions for neglected diseases. Distribution indices are indeed powerful tools for emphasizing the most relevant treatments against a given disease and should be very useful in the meta-analysis of other regional pharmacopeia. This focus on renowned remedies that have not yet benefitted from extended laboratory studies, could stimulate future research on new treatments of natural origin for leishmaniasis. © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd  
  Address Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Biotechnologies Microbiennes (LBBM), Observatoire Océanologique, Banyuls-sur-Mer, France  
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  Notes Export Date: 27 February 2017 Approved no  
  Call Number EcoFoG @ webmaster @ Serial 737  
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Author Houel, E.; Nardella, F.; Jullian, V.; Valentin, A.; Vonthron-Sénécheau, C.; Villa, P.; Obrecht, A.; Kaiser, M.; Bourreau, E.; Odonne, G.; Fleury, M.; Bourdy, G.; Eparvier, V.; Deharo, E.; Stien, D. url  openurl
  Title Wayanin and guaijaverin, two active metabolites found in a Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC (syn. P. persoonii McVaugh) (Myrtaceae) antimalarial decoction from the Wayana Amerindians Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Ethnopharmacology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Ethnopharmacology  
  Volume (down) 187 Issue Pages 241-248  
  Keywords Antimalarial; Cytokines; French guiana; Glycosylated flavonols; Psidium acutangulum; Traditional remedy  
  Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC is a small tree used by the Wayana Amerindians from the Upper-Maroni in French Guiana for the treatment of malaria. Aim of the study In a previous study, we highlighted the in vitro antiplasmodial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the traditional decoction of P. acutangulum aerial parts. Our goal was then to investigate on the origin of the biological activity of the traditional remedy, and eventually characterize active constituents. Materials and methods Liquid-liquid extractions were performed on the decoction, and the antiplasmodial activity evaluated against chloroquine-resistant FcB1 ([3H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) and 7G8 (pLDH bioassay) P. falciparum strains, and on a chloroquine sensitive NF54 ([3H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) P. falciparum strain. The ethyl acetate fraction (D) was active and underwent bioguided fractionation. All the isolated compounds were tested on P. falciparum FcB1 strain. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) of the ethyl acetate fraction and of an anti-Plasmodium active compound, was concurrently assessed on LPS-stimulated human PBMC and NO secretion inhibition was measured on LPS stimulated RAW murine macrophages. Cytotoxicity of the fractions and pure compounds was measured on VERO cells, L6 mammalian cells, PBMCs, and RAW cells. Results Fractionation of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction (IC50 ranging from 3.4 to <1 μg/mL depending on the parasite strain) led to the isolation of six pure compounds: catechin and five glycosylated quercetin derivatives. These compounds have never been isolated from this plant species. Two of these compounds (wayanin and guaijaverin) were found to be moderately active against P. falciparum FcB1 in vitro (IC50 5.5 and 6.9 μM respectively). We proposed the name wayanin during public meetings organized in June 2015 in the Upper-Maroni villages, in homage to the medicinal knowledge of the Wayana population. At 50 μg/mL, the ethyl acetate fraction (D) significantly inhibited IL-1β secretion (-46%) and NO production (-21%), as previously observed for the decoction. The effects of D and guiajaverin (4) on the secretion of other cytokines or NO production were not significant. Conclusions The confirmed antiplasmodial activity of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the decoction and of the isolated compounds support the previous results obtained on the P. acutangulum decoction. The antiplasmodial activity might be due to a mixture of moderately active non-toxic flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory activities were less marked for ethyl acetate fraction (D) than for the decoction. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.  
  Address Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Biotechnologies Microbiennes (LBBM), Observatoire Océanologique, Banyuls/Mer, France  
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  Notes Export Date: 20 May 2016 Approved no  
  Call Number EcoFoG @ webmaster @ Serial 679  
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Author Houel, E.; Fleury, M.; Odonne, G.; Nardella, F.; Bourdy, G.; Vonthron-Sénécheau, C.; Villa, P.; Obrecht, A.; Eparvier, V.; Deharo, E.; Stien, D. url  openurl
  Title Antiplasmodial and anti-inflammatory effects of an antimalarial remedy from the Wayana Amerindians, French Guiana: Takamalaimë (Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC., Myrtaceae) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Ethnopharmacology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 166 Issue Pages 279-285  
  Keywords Psidium acutangulum; Plasmodium; Cytokines; Antimalarial; French Guiana; Traditional medicine  
  Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance:
Field investigations highlighted the use of Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC (syn. P. persoonii McVaugh), a small tree used by the Wayana Amerindians in Twenke–Taluhwen and Antecume–Pata, French Guiana, for the treatment of malaria, and administered either orally in the form of a decoction or applied externally over the whole body. This use appears limited to the Wayana cultural group in French Guiana and has never been reported anywhere else. Our goal was to evaluate the antimalarial and anti-inflammatory activities of a P. acutangulum decoction to explain the good reputation of this remedy.
Materials and methods:
Interviews with the Wayana inhabitants of Twenke–Taluhwen and Antecume–Pata were conducted within the TRAMAZ project according to the TRAMIL methodology, which is based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of medicinal plant uses. A decoction of dried aerial parts of P. acutangulum was prepared in consistency with the Wayana recipe. In vitro antiplasmodial assays were performed on chloroquine-resistant FcB1 ([3H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) and 7G8 (pLDH bioassay) P. falciparum strains and on chloroquine sensitive NF54 ([3H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) P. falciparum strain. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) was evaluated on LPS-stimulated human PBMC and NO secretion inhibition was measured on LPS stimulated RAW murine macrophages. Cytotoxicity of the decoction was measured on L6 mammalian cells, PBMCs, and RAW cells. A preliminary evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of the decoction, administered orally twice daily, was assessed by the classical four-day suppressive test against P. berghei NK65 in mice.
Results:
The decoction displayed a good antiplasmodial activity in vitro against the three tested strains, regardless to the bioassay used, with IC50 values of 3.3 µg/mL and 10.3 µg/mL against P. falciparum FcB1 and NF54, respectively and 19.0 µg/mL against P. falciparum 7G8. It also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in a dose dependent manner. At a concentration of 50 µg/mL, the decoction inhibited the secretion of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines: TNFα (−18%), IL-1β (−58%), IL-6 (−32%), IL-8 (−21%). It also exhibited a mild NO secretion inhibition (−13%) at the same concentration. The decoction was non-cytotoxic against L6 cells (IC50>100 µg/mL), RAW cells and PBMC. In vivo, 150 µL of the decoction given orally twice a day (equivalent to 350 mg/kg/day of dried extract) inhibited 39.7% average parasite growth, with more than 50% of inhibition in three mice over five. The absence of response for the two remaining mice, however, induced a strong standard deviation.
Conclusions:
This study highlighted the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of the decoction of P. acutangulum aerial parts, used by Wayana Amerindians from the Upper-Maroni in French Guiana in case of malaria. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, which may help to explain its use against this disease, was demonstrated using models of artificially stimulated cells.
 
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  Call Number EcoFoG @ webmaster @ Serial 649  
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Author Bertani, S.; Houel, E.; Jullian, V.; Bourdy, G.; Valentin, A.; Stien, D.; Deharo, E. url  openurl
  Title New findings on Simalikalactone D, an antimalarial compound from Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Experimental Parasitology Abbreviated Journal Exp. Parasitol.  
  Volume (down) 130 Issue 4 Pages 341-347  
  Keywords Antimalarial; Plasmodium; Quassia amara; Quassinoid; Simalikalactone d  
  Abstract Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) is a species widely used as tonic and is claimed to be an efficient antimalarial all over the Northern part of the Amazon basin. Quassinoid compound Simalikalactone D (SkD) has been shown to be one of the molecules responsible for the antiplasmodial activity of a watery preparation made out of juvenile fresh leaves of this plant. Because of its strong antimalarial activity, we decided to have a further insight of SkD pharmacological properties, alone or in association with classical antimalarials. At concentrations of up to 200 μM, we showed herein that SkD did not exert any apoptotic or necrotic activities in vitro on lymphoblastic cells. However, an antiproliferative effect was evident at concentrations higher than 45. nM. SkD was inefficient at inhibiting heme biomineralization and the new permeability pathways induced by the parasite in the host erythrocyte membrane. With respect to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic stages, SkD was almost inactive on earlier and later parasite stages, but potently active at the 30th h of parasite cycle when DNA replicates in mature trophozoites. In vitro combination studies with conventional antimalarial drugs showed that SkD synergizes with atovaquone (ATO). The activity of ATO on the Plasmodium mitochondrial membrane potential was enhanced by SkD, which on its own had a poor effect on this cellular parameter. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.  
  Address UMR152 IRD-UPS, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (UPCH), Lima, Peru  
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  Notes Export Date: 24 April 2012; Source: Scopus; Coden: Expaa; doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2012.02.013; Language of Original Document: English; Correspondence Address: Deharo, E.; UMR152 IRD-UPS, Faculté de Pharmacie, 35 chemin des maraîchers, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9, France; email: ericdeharo@gmail.com Approved no  
  Call Number EcoFoG @ webmaster @ Serial 395  
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Author Houel, E.; Bertani, S.; Bourdy, G.; Deharo, E.; Jullian, V.; Valentin, A.; Chevalley, S.; Stien, D. openurl 
  Title Quassinoid constituents of Quassia amara L. leaf herbal tea. Impact on its antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Journal of Ethnopharmacology Abbreviated Journal J. Ethnopharmacol.  
  Volume (down) 126 Issue 1 Pages 114-118  
  Keywords Quassia amara L.; Simaroubaceae; Leaf tea; Antimalarial activity; Cytotoxicity; Simalikalactone D  
  Abstract Aim of the study: Our objective was to assess whether it could be contemplated to recommend Quassia amara young leaf tea for treatment against malaria. and if yes. set up a standard protocol for preparing the herbal tea. Materials and methods: The leaf tea was extracted with methylene chloride and the organic extract was fractionated with HPLC. Pure compounds were characterized and their in vitro cytotoxicity and antiplasmodial activity was determined. Results and discussion: We discovered that antimalarial Quassia amara young leaf tea contains several quassinoids: simalikalactone D (SkD. 1), picrasin B (2). picrasin H (3), neoquassin (4), quassin (5), picrasin 1(6) and picrasin J (7). These last two compounds are new. In addition. our experiments demonstrate that both biological activity and cytotoxicity of the remedy may be attributed solely to the presence of SkD. Conclusion: In conclusion, this preparation Should not be recommended for treatment of malaria until a clinical Study in humans is performed with SkD. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved  
  Address [Stien, Didier] Univ Antilles Guyane, CNRS, UMR Ecofog, Inst Enseignement Super Guyane, F-97337 Cayenne, France, Email: didier.stien@guyane.cnrs.fr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0378-8741 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ISI:000271790800015 Approved no  
  Call Number EcoFoG @ eric.marcon @ Serial 94  
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