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Bertani, S., Houel, E., Jullian, V., Bourdy, G., Valentin, A., Stien, D., et al. (2012). New findings on Simalikalactone D, an antimalarial compound from Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae). Exp. Parasitol., 130(4), 341–347.
Abstract: Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) is a species widely used as tonic and is claimed to be an efficient antimalarial all over the Northern part of the Amazon basin. Quassinoid compound Simalikalactone D (SkD) has been shown to be one of the molecules responsible for the antiplasmodial activity of a watery preparation made out of juvenile fresh leaves of this plant. Because of its strong antimalarial activity, we decided to have a further insight of SkD pharmacological properties, alone or in association with classical antimalarials. At concentrations of up to 200 μM, we showed herein that SkD did not exert any apoptotic or necrotic activities in vitro on lymphoblastic cells. However, an antiproliferative effect was evident at concentrations higher than 45. nM. SkD was inefficient at inhibiting heme biomineralization and the new permeability pathways induced by the parasite in the host erythrocyte membrane. With respect to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic stages, SkD was almost inactive on earlier and later parasite stages, but potently active at the 30th h of parasite cycle when DNA replicates in mature trophozoites. In vitro combination studies with conventional antimalarial drugs showed that SkD synergizes with atovaquone (ATO). The activity of ATO on the Plasmodium mitochondrial membrane potential was enhanced by SkD, which on its own had a poor effect on this cellular parameter. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Keywords: Antimalarial; Plasmodium; Quassia amara; Quassinoid; Simalikalactone d